Cotton succeeds in various soil types from heavy clay to light sandy soils; it also has a good tolerance to soil salinity but it requires good drainage. The soil must be thoroughly cultivated, leaving a crumbly tilth.
Cotton requires a warm, dry climate (optimum temperature: 25-35°C) for its cultivation. Cotton requires a warm, dry climate (optimum temperature: 25-35°C) for its cultivation, and a frost-free period of ~200 days is essential.
Cotton is planted in Sudan on both flood irrigation systems and in rain-fed areas. Long season varieties are grown for 240 days will require around 4800 m3 of water per Feddan and short season varieties grown around 180 days and will require 3600 m3 of water per Feddan. Cotton cannot withstand high humidity or heavy rain
Soil should be subject to soil analysis for nutrient availability. Excess nitrogen can leads to excess vegetative growth and consequently lower yield.
Harvesting usually starts 135 days after planting for early season varieties and 170 days after planting for late season varieties. Normally harvest takes place when 45-50% of the cotton bolls open. Sequential harvesting is then onwards done every 14 days (3 to 5 picks) until all the crop is collected.